CHICKEN POX

Chickenpox is a viral infection caused by the herpes varicella zostervirus. Chickenpox is an airborne disease . It’s spread in droplets inhaled into the respiratory tract. Complications are rare but serious, and can occur in previously healthy children.

Electron micrograph of a Varicella (Chickenpox...

Electron micrograph of a Varicella (Chickenpox) Virus. Varicella or Chickenpox, is an infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which results in a blister-like rash, itching, tiredness and fever. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chickenpox tends to affect children under ten. Most children have had the infection by this age.

Varicella simplex (Chickenpox) on a child Skul...

Varicella simplex (Chickenpox) on a child Skull. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In older children and adults, chickenpox can be more severe. It’s more common in late winter and spring. Children who are immunosuppressed (for example, on steroids) are particularly vulnerable to complications, as are newborn babies who may catch the infection from their mother in late pregnancy.

The back of a 30-year old male suffering from ...

The back of a 30-year old male suffering from chickenpox. This is on the 5th day since the rash's development. Pocks are starting to crust over. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pathophysiology:

  1. Incubation Period ( 0 to 15 days: primary viremia) : Infection of upper respiratory mucosa with virus containing droplets. Then virus spreads to regional lymph nodes, where it replicates. Virus spreads to the liver and spleen.
  2. Contagious period ( 16 to25 days: secondary viremia) : Infection of the skin leads to appearance of vesicular rash.
  3. Viral Latency ( 26 to more than 40 days) : Viruses enter cutaneous neurons and migrates to ganglia, where they enter a latent state.

Prevention:

A live, attenuated vaccine that was approved in 1995 for use in the United States by children one year of age or older is now recommended as one of the routine childhood vaccines. It is also indicated for non-immune adults at risk of being exposed to contagious individuals. Most people who get chickenpox vaccine will not get chickenpox. But if someone who has been vaccinated does get chickenpox, it is usually very mild. They will have fewer blisters, are less likely to have a fever, and will recover faster.

Treatment:

  • Drink plenty of waters and avoid salty foods.
  • Stop the scratching. Antihistamines may reduce the itching.
  • Cool clothing to avoid sweating.
  • Paracetamol is helpful to lower the fever.
  • Anti viral treatment:  Aciclovir is an antiviral medicine that is sometimes given to people with chickenpox especially those who are immunocompromised. Ideally, aciclovir needs to be started within 24 hours of the rash appearing. It does not cure chickenpox, but it makes the symptoms less severe. You normally need to take the medicine as tablets five times a day for seven days. If you are taking aciclovir, make sure you drink plenty of fluids. Side effects are rare but can include nausea and diarrhoea.Aciclovir may be prescribed to:
    • pregnant women
    • adults, if they visit their GP within 24 hours of the rash appearing
    • newborn babies
    • people with a weakened immune system (the body’s defence system)
  • Immunoglobulin treatment: Immunoglobulin is a solution of antibodies that is taken from healthy donors. Varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) contains antibodies to the chickenpox virus.It is not used to treat chickenpox but to protect people who are at high risk of developing a severe chickenpox infection. This includes:
    • pregnant women
    • newborn babies
    • people with weakened immune systems

    In the case of pregnant women, immunoglobulin treatment also reduces the risk of the unborn baby becoming infected.

    As the supply of VZIG is limited, it will only be considered if a high-risk person has:

    • been significantly exposed to the virus – significant exposure could be face-to-face contact with someone who has chickenpox
    • been in the same room for 15 minutes with someone who has chickenpox
    • had a blood test to confirm that they’ve not had chickenpox before

    In some cases, newborn babies may be given immunoglobulin treatment without having a blood test first.

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Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), also called neonatal respiratory distress syndrome or respiratory distress syndrome of newborn. It is also known as hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Genetic problem with the production of surfactant associated proteins may also cause this disease.

Low mag. Image:Hyaline membranes

Image via Wikipedia

Premature birth is defined as being born before 37 weeks’ gestation. The lungs of infants born this early can’t produce surfactant, a liquid that coats the lungs and prevents them from collapsing. Most babies with respiratory distress syndrome show signs of breathing problems within the first hours after birth.

Premature infant CPAP

Image via Wikipedia

IRDS affects about 1% of newborn infants and is the leading cause of death in preterm infants. The incidence decreases with advancing gestational age, from about 50% in babies born at 26–28 weeks, to about 25% at 30–31 weeks. The syndrome is more frequent in infants of diabetic mothers and in the second born of premature twins.

IRDS is distinct from pulmonary hypoplasia, another leading cause of neonatal death that involves respiratory distress.

The symptoms usually appear within minutes of birth, although they may not be seen for several hours. Symptoms may include:

  • Bluish color of the skin and mucus membranes (cyanosis)
  • Brief stop in breathing (apnea)
  • Decreased urine output
  • Grunting
  • Nasal flaring
  • Rapid breathing
  • Shallow breathing
  • Shortness of breath and grunting sounds while breathing
  • Unusual breathing movement — drawing back of the chest muscles with breathing

Surfaxin (lucinacant) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. It is the fifth FDA-approved drug for IRDS, was evaluated in clinical studies involving nearly 1,300 premature infants. Most side effects involved the breathing tube used to administer the drug. Adverse reactions included tube reflux or obstruction, skin paleness and the need for dose interruption. Surfaxin is produced by Discovery Laboratories, of Warrington, Penn.

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New Influenza Vaccine……..

Logo of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FluMist Quadrivalent, a vaccine to prevent seasonal influenza in people ages 2 years through 49 years, has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FluMist Quadrivalent is the first influenza vaccine to contain four strains of the influenza virus, two influenza A strains and two influenza B strains.

Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae(the influenza viruses), that affects birds and mammals.

Česky: 3D virus chřipky English: 3D model of a...

Image via Wikipedia

In virus classification influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up three of the five genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae:

A diagram of influenza viral cell invasion and replication

The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the most severe disease. The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses. The serotypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are:

  • H1N1, which caused Spanish Flu in 1918, and Swine Flu in 2009
  • H2N2, which caused Asian Flu in 1957
  • H3N2, which caused Hong Kong Flu in 1968
  • H5N1, which caused Bird Flu in 2004
  • H7N7, which has unusual zoonotic potential
  • H1N2, endemic in humans, pigs and birds
  • H9N2
  • H7N2
  • H7N3
  • H10N7

Illustration of influenza virus nomenclature

Like the already approved FluMist (trivalent), the quadrivalent vaccine contains weakened forms of the virus strains and is administered as a spray into the nose.  Each year, the FDA-approved seasonal influenza vaccine includes three strains of influenza virus, two strains of influenza A and one of influenza B.

This is a 5 ml. vial containing the Influenza Virus Vaccine Fluzone

During a typical influenza season, there may be two different influenza B strains circulating, or the B strain selected for inclusion in the trivalent influenza vaccine may not be the influenza B strain that eventually circulates causing illness. The inclusion of a second B strain in FluMist Quadrivalent increases the likelihood of adequate protection against circulating influenza B strains.

Oseltamivir an antiviral drug, slows the spread of influenza virus between cells in the body by stopping the virus from chemically cutting ties with its host cell; median time to symptom alleviation is reduced by 0.5–1 day. The drug is marketed under the trade name Tamiflu, and is taken orally in capsules or as a suspension.

Tamiflu

As of December 15, 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 314 samples of the prevalent 2009 pandemic H1N1 flu tested worldwide have shown resistance to oseltamivir.

What is mind? Part One…

The Thinking Man sculpture at Musée Rodin in Paris

 

 

It’s very difficult to define mind. Our thinking process is very complicated which is controlled by our brain. The main purpose of our thinking process is decision making. In this world, if you want to survive, continuously  you have to make decisions. Our thinking process can be divided into two important segments. One part is independent of any type of influence and another one is the part which is severely influenced by the surroundings. The latter one is your mind.

 

When you are asked any question, normally your brain analyzes information which was previously input in your brain and your brain comes to an conclusion. Here you are not influenced by the environment.

 

When you see any road accident or have a clash with your loved one, you mentally get depressed. These types of incidence have a negative effect on your thinking process. This is what you don’t expect. On the other hand, getting good marks in exams, motivational words have a positive effect on your thinking. This is what you expect. This time you are thinking positively, your confidence level is on high. This is all about your thinking, this is your mind!

Brain scanning technology is quickly approachi...

There is a important relationship between these two pats of your thinking. Depression or motivation eventually process new information in your brain and you takes decision based on these information in the future. You are either mentally depressed or happy. There is no middle state between these two.

 

Your mind is the weakest part of your thinking. There are two groups of human in this world. One are those who are controlled by their mind and the others have control over their mind. You can’t avoid influence but you can control your decision making. You have got the ability by born to choose the right information to make a decision. The second group has mastered this ability. These are the persons who have the so called strong mentality.

 

There are different factors by which people get influenced. This is why you think in a unique way, what others don’t do. This is the reason behind misunderstanding between you and your surroundings.

 

There is a complex relationship between your mind, your heart and your soul. It’s really complicated………